In-vivo microdialysis was used in a freely moving pigeon model to test the hypothesis that it is mainly the DAergic system in the NCL that is functionally involved in short-term memory component required by a working memory task. To test this
hypothesis, an instrumental conditioning DMTS task with a short-term memory component and a MTS task lacking this component were utilized. The main result was the significant increase in DA release in the NCL during DMTS task. But no significant effect
was observed in DA release in the NCL during MTS task. The data indicate only a less pronounced involvement of the DAergic system in the avian striatum. Furthermore, for the first time the 5-HTergic system was also explored during a working memory task,
and in contrast to the DA data, no special effect was found regarding the 5-HTergic system in the NCL. In spite of this fact, the results demonstrated a less pronounced involvement of the 5-HTergic system in the avian striatum.